History Of Skiing
Skiing has existed since time immemorial. The old historic legends bear witness to this. In a cave in the north of Russia can be found what may be the oldest wall painting in the world representing a skier. Its age? Beyond doubt, several thousands of years! In Sweden, geologists have dated fragments of antique skis as being four thousand years old.
Below is a condensed history that marks some of the major milestones that have seen the world of Snow Sports evolve. Thanks to all the FIS historians for their contributions to this page.
Oldest skis found in Russia near Lake Sindor (about 1,200km northwest of Moscow). Skis made of hard wood. (1)
The word ‘ski’ (from suksi) was used in Finland. (2)
Oldest ski found in Norway was Vefsn Nordland Ski. (3)
Rock carvings depicting skiing found at Bøla, Norway. (4)
Bog finds and rock paintings in Russia and Scandinavia prove the use of skis by people at that time. Half a ski and pole were found in Latvia and a ski found in Pskov, Russia. Kalvatrask ski. Finds include a nearly complete ski, one other parts and a pole with a long shovel. Information from the late Jakob Vaage, 1984.
Two complete skis and a pole dating from this time were dug out of a bog at Kalvträsk Sweden, in 1924. Carbon dating proved them to be c. 3300 BC. (5)
1700-1500 BC Bronze age rock carvings including a skier on Aeskove Cultur. Also clay vessel with illustration of skier
200 BC – 200 AD
China. First known documentary reference to skiing from the West Han period. (6)
The Chinese referred to Mongol-Turkish tribes in the official history of the Tang dynasty: The wooden-horse Turks are accustomed to skim over the ice on so-called wooden horses, that is, on sledges (or runners) which they bind to their feet to run over the ice. (7)
Thieh-lo tribe brought tribute riding on pieces of wood hunt deer over the ice. (8)
Battle between Finnmarkers and Danes who used skis. (9)
The Birkebeiners, Thorstein Skevla and Skjervald Skrukka rescued the 2-year-old Prince Hakon Hakonson, heir to the throne, skiing over the Dovre mountains from Lillehammer to Osterdalen. Since 1932 the Birkebeiner race has been run along the supposed route from Rena to Lillehammer. (10)
Von Herbertstein travelled from Vienna to Moscow and described skiers in his book: Rerum Moskoviticumpublished in 1556. The skiers carried one stick and had short skis. (11)
Rules were made about hunting on skis in Norway. (12)
1521 – 1522
Fenno-Sweden’s Kustaa Eeriksson later the king (Gustav Vasa) led the fight of the Taala people against the Danish troops and they used skis. He also asked many of his warlords to equip troops with skis. . (13)
First rules for military on skis made by Jens Henrik Emahusen (1688-1752). (14)
First depiction of skier with two poles. (15)
In the Telemark area, where skis were necessary to get about, the people used them with great skill for health and pleasure. Skiing spread quite quickly all over Norway. (16)
Sondre Norheim. Born 10 June Morgedal, NOR, died 9 March 1897 North Dakota, USA. Improved ski and binding design. Introduced Telemark.
Skiing reported in New Zealand and Australia. (17)
Mathias Zdarsky born Koschichowitz CZE 25 February, died St Polten, 20 June 1940. Founder of Alpine skiing technique, including the stem turn, which he taught on the steep slopes of Lilienfeld. Invented competitions through gates. He shortened skis, invented firmer bindings and used single pole.
Waxes: called ‘Moko’’from Chinese who called anything that would “make go” the skis ‘Moko’. (18)
1863 – 21 January
Run with a jump competition included the first known name of a female; 16 year old Ingrid Olsdatter Vestbyen. (19)
Ivar Holmquist born SWE, died 1954 First President of International Ski Federation, (FIS) 1924-34. Lt-General of Swedish Army; President of Association for Promotion of Skiing & Open Air Activities, in Sweden 1923-1950.
John F. Baddely founded Yukki Ski Club at St Petersburg – the earliest English ski club. (20)
Cross -Country and ski jumping events were developed at Huseby. Whoever got the most points in the two disciplines was the winner. A cup was awarded for a women’s race. (21)
9 March. Helsinki Sports Club organised ski competition. 16.5 km Cross Country and ski jumping. Finns jumped using sticks. A Norwegian engineer, Nielsen, won – without sticks. (22)
First attempts to make lightweight laminated cross country skis to replace heavy hickory skis, by H.M. Christiansen, Edvard Lillehagen and Thorvald Hansen of Oslo. Contemporary glues insufficiently water-resistant. (23)
First German ski championships on the Feldberg, 3 February 1900, won by Bjarne Nilssen. (24)
Nordiska Spelen, -First Nordic Ski Games in Stockholm, 9-12 February.Baron Pierre de Coubertin, founder of the modern Olympic Games called them the Scandinavian Olympiade and suggested they should be organised every two years alternating between Stockholm and Christiania (Oslo). Falkner: Meilensteine Ljenggren and Lindroth in Goksoyr (25)
Finland’s first wooden ski-jump built in Alppila, Helsinki. Pekka Honkanon (26)
10 March First Italian ski competition organised by Milan Ski Club in the Valsassina. (27)First accident insurance for skiers and mountaineers offered by Naturfreund of Austria in Vienna.
First skilift in the world set up in Schollach, Schwarzwald. It rose 75 m and was 550 m long. (28)
18 February. First International Ski Commission, Oslo NOR. Dahl NOR became president. 22 delegates from 10 countries. Forerunner of FIS (29)
Skiing first mentioned as a tourist attraction, when the Hermitage at Mt Cook (NZL), opened (30)
26th October Marc Hodler born. President of the International Ski Federation 1951-1998.
Ladies Ski Club Founded by Arnold Lunn at Mürren to encourage alpine racing for ladies. (31)
Segmented steel edge for alpine skis invented by Rudolph Lettner, a skier and metal worker from Salzburg, Austria. Lettner patented steel edges, intending to prevent skis from wearing down. His daughter, a racer, also found the edges provided vastly improved grip on hard snow. (32)
First FIS Alpine World Championships, Murren, SUI organised by the British. (33)
First Winter Olympic Games to include Alpine races (Slalom and Downhill but medal awarded for Combined only) for men and women. Nordic Relay Race introduced. (GER).
Zakopane, POL. FIS Nordic & Alpine World Championships including Cross Country, Jumping, Nordic Combination, Slalom, Downhill and Combined.
Steve Bradley introduced first “mogul cutter” slope grooming machine at Winter Park, Colorado.
Winter Olympic Games, Oslo, NOR. West Germans entered but no East Germans. Giant Slalom became an Olympic discipline. Women’s races included.
Skimatting used for the first time in the world at Oberhof. Hans Renner (Jumping coach) says it revolutionizes training for ski jumping and Nordic Combined. (35)
Bob Lange made the first plastic ski boot. Commercial introduction came in 1964 after adoption of buckles. Also first step-in binding made by Cubco. (no source)
First death in official Alpine championships causes FIS to rule that helmets must be worn. (36)
The start of snowboarding. Sherman Poppen patented first Snurfer and went into production. At first it had no edges or bindings. (37)
The first Exhibition (Freestyle) national championships were held at Snowbird.
First FIS World Championships in Ski Flying. Planica JUG.
Nordic World Championships Oslo NOR. New skating step adopted with shorter skis made of carbon fibre. Nordic combination team event and 90m jump team event included. (38)
The Gundersen method of Nordic combination was introduced. Competitors start the Cross Country according to points awarded for jumping and the winner is the racer who reaches the finish first.
Developed in Australia, the Ultrasight Skigoggle lens was introduced by Carrera International
At the Nordic Ski World Championships Cross Country races were held using both classical and skating steps. At the Alpine World Championships the Super-G was introduced.
First FIS Snowboard World Championships. Lienz, AUT. Giant Slalom, Parallel Giant Slalom; Parallel Slalom, Halfpipe and Snowboard Cross. The Grass Skiing World Cup is introduced.
At the German/Austrian Four-Hills-Tournament, Sven Hannawald (GER) became the first ever to win all four competitions and the overall ranking.
First introduction of the scientifically based Skimetric concept www.skimetric.com a physical, biomechanical and equipment based analytical performance program for snowsports athletes.
Simone Origone (ITA) set a new speed record at Les Arcs (FRA) of 251.40 kph. Raising the ladies’ speed record. Sanna Tidstrand (SWE) reached 242.59 kph.
Women’s Ski Jumping to make debut at the Olympic Winter Games in Sochi (RUS).